Chao Wei, Scott L. Zuckerman, Meghan Cerpa, Hong Ma, Ming Yang, Suomao Yuan, Lawrence G. Lenke

September 2021, Volume 30, Issue 9, pp 2486 - 2494 Original Article Read Full Article 10.1007/s00586-020-06658-3

First Online: 11 November 2020


Pelvic incidence (PI) is assumed to be fixed, yet studies have reported PI changes after long fusions to the pelvis. In a cohort of ASD patients undergoing surgery with S2-alar-iliac (S2AI) screws, we sought to: (1) report the magnitude of PI changes, and (2) evaluate subsequent pelvic parameter changes.


A retrospective case series of ASD patients undergoing surgical correction with S2AI screw placement and sagittal cantilever correction maneuvers was conducted. Patients were categorized based on preoperative PI: High-PI (H-PI) (PI ≥ 60°); Normal-PI (N-PI) (60° > PI > 40°); Low-PI (L-PI) (PI ≤ 40°). PI was measured preoperatively and immediately postoperatively. A significant PI change was established a priori at ≥ 6.0. PI, pelvic tilt (PT), lumbar lordosis (LL), and PI-LL mismatch were analyzed.


In 68 patients (82.3% female, ages 22–75 years), the average change in PI was 4.6° ± 3.1, and 25 (36.8%) had a PI change ≥ 6.0° with breakdown as follows: H-PI 12 (66.7%) patients, 9 (25.87%) patients, and 4 (33.3%) patients. Of 25 patients with PI changes, 10 (14.7%) had a PI increase and 15 (22.1%) had a PI decrease. Significant improvements were seen in PT, LL, PI-LL mismatch in all patients with a PI change ≥ 6.0°, in addition to both subgroups with an increase or decrease in PI.


PI changes of ≥ 6.0° occurred in 36.8% of patients, and H-PI patients most commonly experienced PI changes. Despite PI alterations, pelvic parameters significantly improved postoperatively. These results may be explained by sacroiliac joint laxity, S2AI screw placement, or aggressive sagittal cantilever techniques.

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