Elie Najjar, Rishi Rampersad, Spyridon Komaitis, Ali Mardashti, Magnum Tsegaye

October 2023, Volume 32, Issue 10, pp 3450 - 3462 Review Article Read Full Article 10.1007/s00586-023-07809-y

First Online: 10 June 2023


Vertebroplasty has been recently described in the literature as a potential treatment for C2 metastatic lesions. Stentoplasty may represent a safest and equally alternative to the latter.


To describe a novel technique, stentoplasty, as an alternative for the treatment of metastatic involvement of C2 and to assess its efficacy and safety. To systematically evaluate the pertinent literature regarding the clinical outcomes and complications of C2 vertebroplasty in patients with metastatic disease.


A systematic review of C2 vertebroplasty, in the English language medical literature was conducted for the needs of this study. Additionally, a cohort of five patients, presenting with cervical instability (SINS > 6) and/or severe pain (VAS > 6) from metastatic involvement of C2 and treated with stentoplasty in our department is presented. Outcomes evaluated include, pain control, stability, and complications.


Our systematic review yielded 8 studies that met the inclusion criteria, incorporating 73 patients that underwent C2 vertebroplasty for metastatic disease. There was a reduction in VAS scores following surgery from 7.6 to 2.1. Eleven patients had complications (15%), 3 (4%) required additional stabilization and decompression, 6 (8.2%) had odynophagia and the incidence of cement leak was 31.5% (23/73). With regard to our cohort, all 5 patients presented with severe neck pain (average VAS 6.2 (2–10)) with or without instability (average SINS 10 (6–14)) and underwent C2 stentoplasty. Mean duration of the procedures was 90 min (61–145) and 2.6 mls (2–3) of cement was injected. Postoperatively VAS improved from 6.2 to 1.6 (P = 0.033). No cement leak or other complications were recorded.


A systematic review of the literature demonstrated that C2 vertebroplasty can offer significant pain improvement with a low complication rate. At the same time, this is the first study to describe stentoplasty in a small cohort of patients, as an alternative for the treatment of C2 metastatic lesions in selected cases, offering adequate pain control and improving segmental stability with a high safety profile.

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